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(AFP/Tasso Marcelo) The Brazilian Senate quickly began an official investigation into allegations, leaked to Greenwald by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, that the American spy agency even intercepted President Dilma Rousseff's personal communications.
To register her anger at the Obama administration, Rousseff postponed a planned October 23 state visit to the United States and later denounced the spying at the United Nations General Assembly.
reflects the failure of the Rousseff administration to prevent them.
Journalism is now a high-risk profession in Brazil, and impunity is still a problem despite sporadic progress made by Brazilian prosecutors.
Beyond the death toll in 2013, four journalists were killed for their work in 2012 and three others in 2011.
That program provides assistance, including relocation and police protection, for those who have received serious threats or feel under attack for their work.
Victoria Balthar de Souza Santos, a spokeswoman in her office, told CPJ that the group is seriously considering a permanent watchdog unit to monitor threatened journalists. K.-based organization that champions free speech, has recommended creating a federal program to protect threatened journalists in imminent danger, according to Paula Martins, Article 19's director in South America.
Risk evaluation and protective measures would be decided by a group composed of members of civil society with expertise on press issues, freedom of expression, and human rights, Martins said.
A similar protection program in Colombia is often cited for helping to reduce violence against journalists.
In Colombia, a committee of government officials and civil society representatives meets frequently to assess the security needs of journalists under threat.Its members--several civil society groups, representatives from the presidency, and the communications and justice ministries--met several times throughout the year.